17 February 2010
HC Pub: 091171
ISBN: 978-1-100-14320-0 (print version)
ISBN: 978-1-100-14321-7 (PDF version)
Catalogue number: H113-26/2010-2E (print version)
Catalogue number: H113-26/2010-2E-PDF (PDF version)
This page is a summary of the Evaluation Report. If you would like more detail, please request the full Evaluation Report.
To obtain an electronic copy of the document, Evaluation Report ERC2010-02, Tetrakis (Hydroxymethyl) Phosphonium Sulfate, please contact our publications office.
Should you require further information please contact the Pest Management Information Service.
Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA), under the authority of the Pest Control Products Act and Regulations, has granted conditional registration for the sale and use of the technical product Tolcide P75S, containing the active ingredient tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate, and the end-use products Tolcide PS200 to control microbial slime formation in oilfield operations and in evaporative cooling towers, and Tolcide PS75LT to control microbial slimes in oilfield operations.
An evaluation of available scientific information found that, under the approved conditions of use, the product has value and does not present an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment.
Although the risks and value have been found acceptable when all risk-reduction measures are followed, the applicant must submit additional scientific information as a condition of registration.
Evaluation Report ERC2010-02, Tetrakis (Hydroxymethyl) Phosphonium Sulfate, describes the key points of the evaluation as well as provides detailed technical information on the human health, environmental and value assessments of Tolcide 75PS and the end-use products Tolcide PS200 and Tolcide PS75LT.
The key objective of the Pest Control Products Act is to prevent unacceptable risks to people and the environment from the use of pest control products. Health or environmental risk is considered acceptableFootnote 1 if there is reasonable certainty that no harm to human health, future generations or the environment will result from use or exposure to the product under its proposed conditions of registration. The Act also requires that products have valueFootnote 2 when used according to the label directions. Conditions of registration may include special precautionary measures on the product label to further reduce risk.
To reach its decisions, the PMRA applies modern, rigorous risk-assessment methods and policies. These methods consider the unique characteristics of sensitive subpopulations in humans (such as children) as well as organisms in the environment (for example, those most sensitive to environmental contaminants). These methods and policies also consider the nature of the effects observed and the uncertainties when predicting the impact of pesticides. For more information, please refer to the following:
Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate is a slimicide that provides effective prevention of microbial slimes in process waters against a range of slime-forming microbes. Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate acts primarily to increase the permeability of the outer membrane of the microbial cell envelope which causes protein and other cellular materials to be rapidly released from the cells. In addition, tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate inhibits the sulfate reduction process within sulfate reducing bacteria.
Tolcide PS75 is a technical product containing 75% tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate. Tolcide PS75 is used to manufacture the end use products Tolcide PS75LT and Tolcide PS200. Tolcide PS75LT is used to control microbial slime formation in oilfield operations. Tolcide PS200 is used to control microbial slimes in evaporative cooling towers and in oilfield operations.
Tolcide PS200 was proposed for use in pulp and paper processing facilities. Workers in the pulp and paper processing facilities may be exposed to mist downstream of the site of application. No data were submitted for the characterization of the level of worker exposure to mist and to tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulphate and its by-products in pulp and paper facilities. Therefore, a risk assessment for this scenario could not be conducted, and the use in pulp and paper processing facilities was not accepted to appear on the Tolcide PS200 label.
Can Approved Uses of Tetrakis (Hydroxymethyl) Phosphonium Sulfate Affect
Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate is unlikely to affect your health when used according to the label directions.
Exposure to tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate may occur when handling and applying the products. When assessing health risks, two key factors are considered:
The dose levels used to assess risks are established to protect the most sensitive human population (for example, children and nursing mothers). The risk assessment is conducted to ensure that the level of human exposure is well below the lowest dose at which effects occurred in animal tests. Only those uses where exposure is well below levels that cause no effects in animal testing are considered acceptable for registration.
Toxicology studies in laboratory animals describe potential health effects from varying levels of exposure to a chemical and identify the dose where no effects are observed.
The technical product Tolcide PS75 was of high toxicity when given as a single oral dose to rats and was of slight toxicity after a single dose was inhaled. It also caused eye and skin irritation in animals, and is considered to be a potential skin sensitizer. Consequently, the statements "Danger Poison", "Eye and Skin Irritant" and "Potential Skin Sensitizer" as well as the skull and crossbones symbol are required on the label. The end-use products Tolcide PS75LT and Tolcide PS200 are considered to have the same acute toxicity profile as Tolcide PS75. Therefore, the same statements and symbols will be required on the labels of Tolcide PS75LT and Tolcide PS200.
Tolcide PS75 was found to be genotoxic in some studies and to cause cancer in the uterus and adrenal gland. Health effects in animals given daily doses of Tolcide PS75 over longer periods of time included effects on the liver, lung, testes, uterus and bone marrow as well as lymphoid depletion of spleen and thymus. Some animals died when higher doses of Tolcide PS75 were given or when Tolcide PS75 was given for longer periods of time. There was no indication that Tolcide PS75 caused damage to the nervous system. When Tolcide PS75 was given to pregnant animals, effects on the developing fetus were generally observed at doses that were also toxic to the mother, which suggests that the fetus is not more sensitive to Tolcide PS75 than the adult animal. There were limitations with the study that tests for reproductive effects. Therefore, the study was considered to be unacceptable for use in assessing human risk of Tolcide PS75.
A complete toxicology data package was not submitted to support Tolcide PS75. Therefore, the hazard characterization for this chemical could not be completed. As the exposure was determined to be negligible based on the products use in cooling towers and oilfields, no further studies were required to complete the current assessment. However, for any future use expansions, the PMRA will reconsider the need to address these data concerns.
Dietary risks from food and water are not of concern.
Based on the use pattern for tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate, dietary risk from food and water are not of concern.
Occupational Risks From Handling Tolcide PS200 and Tolcide PS75LT
Occupational risks are not of concern when Tolcide PS200 and Tolcide PS75LT is used according to label directions, which include protective measures.
A qualitative risk assessment conducted for individuals handling Tolcide PS75LT or Tolcide PS200 products, indicated that the risk for adults is not of concern when these products are used according to the label directions.
Workers mixing, loading and applying Tolcide PS75LT or Tolcide PS200 can come in direct contact with tetrakis-hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate on the skin or through inhalation. Therefore, the label will specify that workers must wear coveralls over a long-sleeved shirt and long pants, chemical-resistant gloves, socks, chemical-resistant footwear, a respirator and goggles or a face shield when mixing, loading and applying Tolcide PS75LT or Tolcide PS200, or during clean-up and repair activities.
What Happens When Tetrakis (Hydroxymethyl) Phosphonium Sulfate Is Introduced into the Environment?
Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate is toxic to freshwater alga and freshwater invertebrates. Therefore, label instructions are required to protect these organisms and to minimize exposure to the aquatic environment.
Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate may enter the environment after it is used as a slimicide in oilfield operations and evaporative cooling towers. Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate is not persistent in water and is rapidly mineralized into carbon dioxide.
Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate is not expected to be present in air. Based on the use pattern, very little is anticipated to reach the environment and once there it rapidly transforms into carbon dioxide so is not expected to be persistent. Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate has limited potential to partition into sediment or organic matter and is non-persistent in the aquatic system. Under actual use conditions, tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate residues were found to be below the detection limit (0.5 mg a.i./L) at the point of discharge into the watercourse. Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate residues are not expected to enter the soil and is, therefore, not expected to be found in the terrestrial environment.
Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate presents a low risk to mysid shrimp, fish, eastern oyster, and vascular plants. Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate is expected to adversely affect daphnids and freshwater green alga. Therefore, specific instructions on its toxicity to aquatic organisms and to minimize exposure to the aquatic environment are provided on the product labels.
What is the Value of Tolcide PS75LT and Tolcide PS200?
Tolcide PS75LT controls microbial slime formation in oilfield operations. Tolcide PS200 controls microbial slimes in evaporative cooling towers and in oilfield operations.
Tolcide PS75LT and Tolcide PS200 provide effective prevention of microbial slimes in process waters against a range of slime-forming microbes. These products are compatible with current slime-management practices in oilfield operations and evaporative cooling towers. These products provide an alternative biocide for industrial process waters with a completely new chemistry and are valuable alternative biocides in industries where the common practice is to regularly alternate slimicides.
Labels of registered pesticide products include specific instructions for use. Directions include risk-reduction measures to protect human and environmental health. These directions must be followed by law.
The key risk-reduction measures being proposed on the labels of Tolcide PS200 and Tolcide PS75LT to address the potential risks identified in this assessment are as follows.
To avoid direct contact with Tolcide PS75LT or Tolcide PS200, loading and transfer is permitted only with a closed system. In addition, anyone handling this product must wear all the personal protective equipment stated on the labels.
As tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate is toxic to freshwater algae and freshwater invertebrates, specific instructions to minimize exposure to the aquatic environment are provided on the product labels.
Although the risks and value have been found acceptable when all risk-reduction measures are followed, the applicant must submit additional scientific information as a condition of registration. More details are presented in the Science Evaluation section of Evaluation Report ERC2010-02, Tetrakis (Hydroxymethyl) Phosphonium Sulfate, or in the Section 12 Notice associated with these conditional registrations. The applicant must submit the following information within the time frames indicated.
The following studies are required to complete the chemistry database for this product:
The following studies are required to ensure that the lowest effective rates are being used:
As these conditional registrations relate to a decision on which the public must be consulted,Footnote 3 the PMRA will publish a consultation document when there is a proposed decision on applications to convert the conditional registrations to full registrations or on applications to renew the conditional registrations, whichever occurs first.
The test data cited in this Evaluation Report (in other words, the test data relevant in supporting the registration decision) will be made available for public inspection when the decision is made to convert the conditional registrations to full registrations or to renew the conditional registrations (following public consultation). If more information is required, please contact the PMRA's Pest Management Information Service.
"Acceptable risks" as defined by subsection 2(2) of the Pest Control Products Act.
"Value" as defined by subsection 2(1) of the Pest Control Products Act "...the product's actual or potential contribution to pest management, taking into account its conditions or proposed conditions of registration, and includes the product's (a) efficacy; (b) effect on host organisms in connection with which it is intended to be used; and (c) health, safety and environmental benefits and social and economic impact."
As per subsection 28(1) of the Pest Control Products Act.