A survey conducted pursuant to Section 71 of CEPA 1999 indicated that in Canada during the year 2000, approximately 150 tonnes of HCE were manufactured and 10-100 tonnes were imported (Environment Canada, 2001). HCE was reported to be used in Canada as a chemical intermediate, in the aluminum industry and as a flame retardant in an industrial resin (Environment Canada, 2001). Other uses of HCE noted in earlier reports were in military pyrotechnics, in the metallurgical industry, as a plasticizer, as an ignition suppressant, as a processing aid in various industrial processes, as a component of fungicidal and insecticidal formulations and (formerly) as an anthelmintic in veterinary medicine (IARC, 1979; Kirk-Othmer, 1993; ATSDR, 1997; NLM, 1999). Data on the use or presence of HCE in consumer products were not identified for Canada or other jurisdictions.
HCE releases to the environment in Canada are primarily atmospheric emissions from industrial processes. While exposure to HCE may occur from dermal contact with or ingestion of contaminated food, water or soil, the most likely route of exposure is expected to be inhalation of contaminated air. Exposure resulting from the use of consumer products is not expected to occur.