Health Canada
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Food and Nutrition

Dietary Reference Intakes

Reference Values for Elements
  ArsenicFootnote 16 Boron Calcium** Chromium Copper Fluoride Iodine
Unit N/A mg/day mg/day μg/day μg/day mg/day μg/day
  AI ULFootnote 17 AI UL EAR RDA/AI UL AI ULFootnote 17 EAR RDA/AI UL AI UL EAR RDA/AI UL
Infants

This table presents Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) in italics, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) are in shaded columns.

** New 2010 values have replaced previous 1997 values.

Footnotes

Footnote 16

Although a UL was not determined for arsenic, there is no justification for adding arsenic to food or supplements.

Return to footnote 16 referrer

Footnote 17

Due to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for arsenic and chromium. This does not mean that there is no potential for adverse effects resulting from high intakes.

Return to footnote 17 referrer

Note: These are reference values for normal, apparently healthy individuals eating a typical mixed North American diet. An individual may have physiological, health, or lifestyle characteristics that may require tailoring of specific nutrient values.

0-6 mo ND ND ND ND ND 200* 1000 0.2* ND ND 200* ND 0.01* 0.7 ND 110* ND
7-12 mo ND ND ND ND ND 260* 1500 5.5* ND ND 220* ND 0.5* 0.9 ND 130* ND
Children
1-3 y ND ND ND 3 500 700 2500 11* ND 260 340 1000 0.7* 1.3 65 90 200
4-8 y ND ND ND 6 800 1000 2500 15* ND 340 440 3000 1* 2.2 65 90 300
Males
9-13 y ND ND ND 11 1100 1300 3000 25* ND 540 700 5000 2* 10 73 120 600
14-18 y ND ND ND 17 1100 1300 3000 35* ND 685 890 8000 3* 10 95 150 900
19-30 y ND ND ND 20 800 1000 2500 35* ND 700 900 10000 4* 10 95 150 1100
31-50 y ND ND ND 20 800 1000 2500 35* ND 700 900 10000 4* 10 95 150 1100
51-70 y ND ND ND 20 800 1000 2000 30* ND 700 900 10000 4* 10 95 150 1100
>70 y ND ND ND 20 1000 1200 2000 30* ND 700 900 10000 4* 10 95 150 1100
Females
9-13 y ND ND ND 11 1100 1300 3000 21* ND 540 700 5000 2* 10 73 120 600
14-18 y ND ND ND 17 1100 1300 3000 24* ND 685 890 8000 3* 10 95 150 900
19-30 y ND ND ND 20 800 1000 2500 25* ND 700 900 10000 3* 10 95 150 1100
31-50 y ND ND ND 20 800 1000 2500 25* ND 700 900 10000 3* 10 95 150 1100
51-70 y ND ND ND 20 1000 1200 2000 20* ND 700 900 10000 3* 10 95 150 1100
>70 y ND ND ND 20 1000 1200 2000 20* ND 700 900 10000 3* 10 95 150 1100
Pregnancy
< 18 y ND ND ND 17 1100 1300 3000 29* ND 785 1000 8000 3* 10 160 220 900
19-30 y ND ND ND 20 800 1000 2500 30* ND 800 1000 10000 3* 10 160 220 1100
31-50 y ND ND ND 20 800 1000 2500 30* ND 800 1000 10000 3* 10 160 220 1100
Lactation
< 18 y ND ND ND 17 1100 1300 3000 44* ND 985 1300 8000 3* 10 209 290 900
19-30 y ND ND ND 20 800 1000 2500 45* ND 1000 1300 10000 3* 10 209 290 1100
31-50 y ND ND ND 20 800 1000 2500 45* ND 1000 1300 10000 3* 10 209 290 1100
Table 2 - Reference Values for Elements
  IronFootnote 18 Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Nickel Phosphorus
Unit mg/day mg/day mg/day μg/day mg/day mg/day
  EAR RDA/AI UL EAR RDA/AI ULFootnote 19 AI UL EAR RDA/AI UL AI UL EAR RDA/AI UL
Infants

This table presents Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) in italics, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) are in shaded columns.

Footnotes

Footnote 18

The requirement for iron is 1.8 times higher for vegetarians due to the lower bioavailability of iron from a vegetarian diet.

Return to footnote 18 referrer

Footnote 19

The UL for magnesium represents intake from a pharmacological agent only and does not include intake from food and water.

Return to footnote 19 referrer

Footnote e

For the EAR and RDA, it is assumed that girls younger than 14 years do not menstruate and that girls 14 years and older do menstruate. It is assumed that women 51 years and older are post-menopausal.

Return to footnote e referrer

Note: These are reference values for normal, apparently healthy individuals eating a typical mixed North American diet. An individual may have physiological, health, or lifestyle characteristics that may require tailoring of specific nutrient values.

0-6 mo
7-12 mo
ND
6.9
0.27*
11
40
40
ND
ND
30*
75*
ND
ND
0.003*
0.6*
ND
ND
ND
ND
2*
3*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
100*
275*
ND
ND
Children
1-3 y
4-8 y
3.0
4.1
7
10
40
40
65
110
80
130
65
110
1.2*
1.5*
2
3
13
17
17
22
300
600
ND
ND
0.2
0.3
380
405
460
500
3000
3000
Males
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
51-70 y
>70 y
5.9
7.7
6
6
6
6
8
11
8
8
8
8
40
45
45
45
45
45
200
340
330
350
350
350
240
410
400
420
420
420
350
350
350
350
350
350
1.9*
2.2*
2.3*
2.3*
2.3*
2.3*
6
9
11
11
11
11
26
33
34
34
34
34
34
43
45
45
45
45
1100
1700
2000
2000
2000
2000
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.6
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1055
1055
580
580
580
580
1250
1250
700
700
700
700
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
3000
Females
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
51-70 y
>70 y
5.7Footnote e
7.9Footnote e
8.1Footnote e
8.1Footnote e
5Footnote e
5Footnote e
8Footnote e
15Footnote e
18Footnote e
18Footnote e
8Footnote e
8Footnote e
40
45
45
45
45
45
200
300
255
265
265
265
240
360
310
320
320
320
350
350
350
350
350
350
1.6*
1.6*
1.8*
1.8*
1.8*
1.8*
6
9
11
11
11
11
26
33
34
34
34
34
34
43
45
45
45
45
1100
1700
2000
2000
2000
2000
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.6
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1055
1055
580
580
580
580
1250
1250
700
700
700
700
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
3000
Pregnancy
< 18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
23
22
22
27
27
27
45
45
45
335
290
300
400
350
360
350
350
350
2.0*
2.0*
2.0*
9
11
11
40
40
40
50
50
50
1700
2000
2000
ND
ND
ND
1.0
1.0
1.0
1055
580
580
1250
700
700
3500
3500
3500
Lactation
< 18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
7
6.5
6.5
10
9
9
45
45
45
300
255
265
360
310
320
350
350
350
2.6*
2.6*
2.6*
9
11
11
35
36
36
50
50
50
1700
2000
2000
ND
ND
ND
1.0
1.0
1.0
1055
580
580
1250
700
700
4000
4000
4000
Table 3 - Reference Values for Elements
  Selenium SiliconFootnote 20 VanadiumFootnote 22 ZincFootnote 23 PotassiumFootnote 24 SodiumFootnote 25 ChlorideFootnote 26 SulfateFootnote 27
Unit μg/day N/A mg/day mg/day mg/day mg/day mg/day N/A
  EAR RDA/AI UL AI ULFootnote 21 AI UL EAR RDA/AI UL AI ULFootnote 21 AI UL AI UL AI ULFootnote 21
Infants

This table presents Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) in italics, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) are in shaded columns.

Footnotes

Footnote 20

Although silicon has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding silicon to supplements.

Return to footnote 20 referrer

Footnote 21

Due to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for silicon, potassium, and sulfate . This does not mean that there is no potential for adverse effects resulting from high intakes.

Return to footnote 21 referrer

Footnote 22

Although vanadium in food has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding vanadium to food and vanadium supplements should be used with caution. The UL is based on adverse effects in laboratory animals and this data could be used to set a UL for adults but not children and adolescents.

Return to footnote 22 referrer

Footnote 23

The requirement for zinc may be as much as 50 percent greater for vegetarians, particularly for strict vegetarians whose major food staples are grains and legumes, due to the lower bioavailability of zinc from a vegetarian diet.

Return to footnote 23 referrer

Footnote 24

The beneficial effects of potassium appear to be mainly from the forms of potassium found naturally in foods such as fruits and vegetables. Supplemental potassium should only be provided under medical supervision

Return to footnote 24 referrer

Footnote 25

Grams of sodium x 2.53 = grams of salt.

Return to footnote 25 referrer

Footnote 26

Sodium and chloride are normally found in foods together as sodium chloride (table salt). For this reason, the AI and UL for chloride are set at a level equivalent on a molar basis to those for sodium, since almost all dietary chloride comes with sodium added during processing or consumption of foods.

Return to footnote 26 referrer

Footnote 27

An AI for sulfate was not established because sulfate requirements are met when dietary intakes contain recommended levels of sulfur amino acids (protein).

Return to footnote 27 referrer

Note: These are reference values for normal, apparently healthy individuals eating a typical mixed North American diet. An individual may have physiological, health, or lifestyle characteristics that may require tailoring of specific nutrient values.

0-6 mo
7-12 mo
ND
ND
15*
20*
45
60
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2.5
2*
3
4
5
400*
700*
ND
ND
120*
370*
ND
ND
180*
570*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Children
1-3 y
4-8 y
17
23
20
30
90
150
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2.5
4.0
3
5
7
12
3000*
3800*
ND
ND
1000*
1200*
1500
1900
1500*
1900*
2300
2900
ND
ND
ND
ND
Males
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
51-70 y
>70 y
35
45
45
45
45
45
40
55
55
55
55
55
280
400
400
400
400
400
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
7.0
8.5
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
8
11
11
11
11
11
23
34
40
40
40
40
4500*
4700*
4700*
4700*
4700*
4700*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
1500*
1500*
1500*
1500*
1300*
1200*
2200
2300
2300
2300
2300
2300
2300*
2300*
2300*
2300*
2000*
1800*
3400
3600
3600
3600
3600
3600
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Females
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
51-70 y
>70 y
35
45
45
45
45
45
40
55
55
55
55
55
280
400
400
400
400
400
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
7.0
7.3
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
8
9
8
8
8
8
23
34
40
40
40
40
4500*
4700*
4700*
4700*
4700*
4700*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
1500*
1500*
1500*
1500*
1300*
1200*
2200
2300
2300
2300
2300
2300
2300*
2300*
2300*
2300*
2000*
1800*
3400
3600
3600
3600
3600
3600
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Pregnancy
< 18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
49
49
49
60
60
60
400
400
400
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
10.5
9.5
9.5
12
11
11
34
40
40
4700*
4700*
4700*
ND
ND
ND
1500*
1500*
1500*
2300
2300
2300
2300*
2300*
2300*
3600
3600
3600
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Lactation
< 18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
59
59
59
70
70
70
400
400
400
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
10.9
10.4
10.4
13
12
12
34
40
40
5100*
5100*
5100*
ND
ND
ND
1500*
1500*
1500*
2300
2300
2300
2300*
2300*
2300*
3600
3600
3600
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND