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Food and Nutrition

Dietary Reference Intakes

Reference Values for Macronutrients
  Carbohydrate
(Digestible)
Total ProteinTable 1 footnote 29 Total Fat Linoleic Acid
(n-6)
α-linolenic
Acid (n-3)
Total FibreTable 1 footnote 31 Total WaterTable 1 footnote 33
Unit g/day g/kg/day g/day Table 1 footnote 30 g/day g/day g/day g/day Litres/day
  EAR RDA/AI ULTable 1 footnote 28 EAR RDA/AI RDA/AI ULTable 1 footnote 28 AI ULTable 1 footnote 28 AI ULTable 1 footnote 28 AI ULTable 1 footnote 28 AITable 1 footnote 32 ULTable 1 footnote 28 AI ULTable 1 footnote 28
Infants

This table presents Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) in italics, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*).

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) are in shaded columns.

Table 1 footnotes

Table 1 footnote 28

Although a UL was not set for any of the macronutrients, the absence of definitive data does not signify that people can tolerate chronic intakes of these substances at high levels.

Return to table 1 footnote 28 referrer

Table 1 footnote 29

Available evidence does not support recommending a separate protein requirement for vegetarians who consume complimentary mixtures of plant proteins, as these can provide the same quality of protein as that from animal proteins.

Return to table 1 footnote 29 referrer

Table 1 footnote 30

Recommendations for total protein are determined as the amount needed per kg body weight multiplied by the reference weight.

Return to table 1 footnote 30 referrer

Table 1 footnote 31

Total fibre is defined as the sum of dietary fibre and functional fibre. See definitions for further details.

Return to table 1 footnote 31 referrer

Table 1 footnote 32

The AI for total fibre is based on 14 g/1000 kcal multiplied by the median usual daily energy intake from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII 1994-1996, 1998).

Return to table 1 footnote 32 referrer

Table 1 footnote 33

Total water includes drinking water, water in beverages, and water that is part of food.

Return to table 1 footnote 33 referrer

Table 1 footnote f

The EAR and RDA for pregnancy are only for the second half of pregnancy. For the first half of pregnancy, protein requirements are the same as those of the nonpregnant woman.

Return to table 1 footnote f referrer

Note: These are reference values for normal, apparently healthy individuals eating a typical mixed North American diet. An individual may have physiological, health, or lifestyle characteristics that may require tailoring of specific nutrient values.

0-6 mo
7-12 mo
ND
ND
60*
95*
ND
ND
ND
1.0
1.52*
1.2
9.1*
11.0
ND
ND
31*
30*
ND
ND
4.4*
4.6*
ND
ND
0.5*
0.5*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.7*
0.8*
ND
ND
Children
1-3 y
4-8 y
100
100
130
130
ND
ND
0.87
0.76
1.05
0.95
13
19
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
7*
10*
ND
ND
0.7*
0.9*
ND
ND
19*
25*
ND
ND
1.3*
1.7*
ND
ND
Males
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
51-70 y
>70 y
100
100
100
100
100
100
130
130
130
130
130
130
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.76
0.73
0.66
0.66
0.66
0.66
0.95
0.85
0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80
34
52
56
56
56
56
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
12*
16*
17*
17*
14*
14*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
1.2*
1.6*
1.6*
1.6*
1.6*
1.6*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
31*
38*
38*
38*
30*
30*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2.4*
3.3*
3.7*
3.7*
3.7*
3.7*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Females
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
51-70 y
>70 y
100
100
100
100
100
100
130
130
130
130
130
130
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.76
0.71
0.66
0.66
0.66
0.66
0.95
0.85
0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80
34
46
46
46
46
46
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
10*
11*
12*
12*
11*
11*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
1.0*
1.1*
1.1*
1.1*
1.1*
1.1*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
26*
26*
25*
25*
21*
21*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2.1*
2.3*
2.7*
2.7*
2.7*
2.7*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Pregnancy
< 18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
135
135
135
175
175
175
ND
ND
ND
0.88Table 1 footnote f
0.88Table 1 footnote f
0.88Table 1 footnote f
1.1Table 1 footnote f
1.1Table 1 footnote f
1.1Table 1 footnote f
71Table 1 footnote f
71Table 1 footnote f
71Table 1 footnote f
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
13*
13*
13*
ND
ND
ND
1.4*
1.4*
1.4*
ND
ND
ND
28*
28*
28*
ND
ND
ND
3.0*
3.0*
3.0*
ND
ND
ND
Lactation
< 18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
160
160
160
210
210
210
ND
ND
ND
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.3
1.3
1.3
71
71
71
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
13*
13*
13*
ND
ND
ND
1.3*
1.3*
1.3*
ND
ND
ND
29*
29*
29*
ND
ND
ND
3.8*
3.8*
3.8*
ND
ND
ND
Dietary Reference Intakes
Males & Females Tableau 2 note de bas de page 34 Total Carbohydrate Total Protein Total Fat n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (α-linolenic acid)
Percent of Energy Percent of Energy Percent of Energy Percent of Energy Percent of Energy Tableau 2 note de bas de page 35

Table 2 footnotes

Table 2 footnote 1

Includes pregnant and lactating women.

Return to table 2 footnote 34 referrer

Table 2 footnote 2

Up to 10% of the AMDR can be consumed as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

Return to table 2 footnote 35 referrer

1-3 years 45 - 65 % 5 - 20 % 30 - 40 % 5 - 10 % 0.6 - 1.2 %
4-18 years 45 - 65 % 10 - 30 % 25 - 35 % 5 - 10 % 0.6 - 1.2 %
19 years and over 45 - 65 % 10 - 35 % 20 - 35 % 5 - 10 % 0.6 - 1.2 %