Health Canada
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Food and Nutrition

Dietary Reference Intakes

Table 1 - Reference Values for Vitamins
   Vitamin ATable 1 footnote 1,Table 1 footnote 2 Vitamin D ** Vitamin ETable 1 footnote 5 Vitamin K
Unit μg/day (RAE) IU/day (RAE) μg/dayTable 1 footnote 4 IU/dayTable 1 footnote 4 mg/day μg/day
   EAR RDA/AI ULTable 1 footnote 3 EAR RDA/AI ULTable 1 footnote 3 EAR RDA/AI  UL  EAR RDA/AI  UL  EAR RDA/AI ULTable 1 footnote 6 AI ULTable 1 footnote 7
Infants

This table presents Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) in italics, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) are in shaded columns.

** New 2010 values have replaced previous 1997 values.

Table 1 footnotes

Table 1 footnote 1

As Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE). See conversion factors for more details.

Return to table 1 footnote 1 referrer

Table 1 footnote 2

No DRIs are established for beta-carotene or other carotenoids. However, existing recommendations for consumption of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables are supported.

Return to table 1 footnote 2 referrer

Table 1 footnote 3

UL as preformed vitamin A only. Beta-carotene supplements are advised only to serve as a provitamin A source for individuals at risk of vitamin A deficiency.

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Table 1 footnote 4

These reference values assume minimal sun exposure.

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Table 1 footnote 5

EAR and RDA/AI as alpha-tocopherol (2R-stereoisomeric forms) only. See conversion factors for more details.

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Table 1 footnote 6

The UL for vitamin E applies only to synthetic vitamin E (all isomeric forms) obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two.

Return to table 1 footnote 6 referrer

Table 1 footnote 7

Due to lack of suitable data, a UL could not be established for vitamin K. This does not mean that there is no potential for adverse effects resulting from high intakes.

Return to table 1 footnote 7 referrer

Note: These are reference values for normal, apparently healthy individuals eating a typical mixed North American diet. An individual may have physiological, health, or lifestyle characteristics that may require tailoring of specific nutrient values.

0-6 mo ND 400* 600 ND 1333* 2000 ND 10* 25 ND 400* 1000 ND 4* ND 2.0* ND
7-12 mo ND 500* 600 ND 1667* 2000 ND 10* 38 ND 400* 1500 ND 5* ND 2.5* ND
Children
1-3 y 210 300 600 700 1000 2000 10 15 63 400 600 2500 5 6 200 30* ND
4-8 y 275 400 900 917 1333 3000 10 15 75 400 600 3000 6 7 300 55* ND
Males
9-13 y 445 600 1700 1483 2000 5667 10 15 100 400 600 4000 9 11 600 60* ND
14-18 y 630 900 2800 2100 3000 9333 10 15 100 400 600 4000 12 15 800 75* ND
19-30 y 625 900 3000 2083 3000 10000 10 15 100 400 600 4000 12 15 1000 120* ND
31-50 y 625 900 3000 2083 3000 10000 10 15 100 400 600 4000 12 15 1000 120* ND
51-70 y 625 900 3000 2083 3000 10000 10 15 100 400 600 4000 12 15 1000 120* ND
>70 y 625 900 3000 2083 3000 10000 10 20 100 400 800 4000 12 15 1000 120* ND
Females
9-13 y 420 600 1700 1400 2000 5667 10 15 100 400 600 4000 9 11 600 60* ND
14-18 y 485 700 2800 1617 2333 9333 10 15 100 400 600 4000 12 15 800 75* ND
19-30 y 500 700 3000 1667 2333 10000 10 15 100 400 600 4000 12 15 1000 90* ND
31-50 y 500 700 3000 1667 2333 10000 10 15 100 400 600 4000 12 15 1000 90* ND
51-70 y 500 700 3000 1667 2333 10000 10 15 100 400 600 4000 12 15 1000 90* ND
>70 y 500 700 3000 1667 2333 10000 10 20 100 400 800 4000 12 15 1000 90* ND
Pregnancy
< 18 y 530 750 2800 1767 2500 9333 10 15 100 400 600 4000 12 15 800 75* ND
19-30 y 550 770 3000 1833 2567 10000 10 15 100 400 600 4000 12 15 1000 90* ND
31-50 y 550 770 3000 1833 2567 10000 10 15 100 400 600 4000 12 15 1000 90* ND
Lactation
< 18 y 885 1200 2800 2950 4000 9333 10 15 100 400 600 4000 16 19 800 75* ND
19-30 y 900 1300 3000 3000 4333 10000 10 15 100 400 600 4000 16 19 1000 90* ND
31-50 y 900 1300 3000 3000 4333 10000 10 15 100 400 600 4000 16 19 1000 90* ND
Table 2 - Reference Values for Vitamins
  Vitamin CTable 2 footnote 8 Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Table 2 footnote 10 Vitamin B6
Unit mg/day mg/day mg/day mg/day (NE) mg/day
  EAR RDA/AI UL EAR RDA/AI ULTable 2 footnote 9 EAR RDA/AI ULTable 2 footnote 9 EAR RDA/AI ULTable 2 footnote 11 EAR RDA/AI UL
Infants

This table presents Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) in italics, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) are in shaded columns.

Table 1 footnotes

Table 2 footnote 8

Because smoking increases oxidative stress and metabolic turnover of vitamin C, the requirement for smokers is increased by 35 mg/day.

Return to table 2 footnote 8 referrer

Table 2 footnote 9

Due to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for thiamin and riboflavin. This does not mean that there is no potential for adverse effects resulting from high intakes.

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Table 2 footnote 10

As Niacin Equivalents (NE). See conversion factors for more details.

Return to table 2 footnote 10 referrer

Table 2 footnote 11

The UL for niacin applies only to synthetic forms obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two.

Return to table 2 footnote 11 referrer

Table 2 footnote a

As preformed niacin, not NE, for this age group.

Note: These are reference values for normal, apparently healthy individuals eating a typical mixed North American diet. An individual may have physiological, health, or lifestyle characteristics that may require tailoring of specific nutrient values.

Return to table 2 footnote a referrer

0-6 mo
7-12 mo
ND
ND
40*
50*
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.2*
0.3*
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.3*
0.4*
ND
ND
ND
ND
2*Table 2 footnote a
4*
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.1*
0.3*
ND
ND
Children
1-3 y
4-8 y
13
22
15
25
400
650
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.6
ND
ND
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.6
ND
ND
5
6
6
8
10
15
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.6
30
40
Males
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
51-70 y
>70 y
39
63
75
75
75
75
45
75
90
90
90
90
1200
1800
2000
2000
2000
2000
0.7
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.9
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.8
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
0.9
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
9
12
12
12
12
12
12
16
16
16
16
16
20
30
35
35
35
35
0.8
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.4
1.4
1.0
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.7
1.7
60
80
100
100
100
100
Females
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
51-70 y
>70 y
39
56
60
60
60
60
45
65
75
75
75
75
1200
1800
2000
2000
2000
2000
0.7
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
9
11
11
11
11
11
12
14
14
14
14
14
20
30
35
35
35
35
0.8
1.0
1.1
1.1
1.3
1.3
1.0
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.5
1.5
60
80
100
100
100
100
Pregnancy
< 18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
66
70
70
80
85
85
1800
2000
2000
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.4
1.4
1.4
ND
ND
ND
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.4
1.4
1.4
ND
ND
ND
14
14
14
18
18
18
30
35
35
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.9
1.9
1.9
80
100
100
Lactation
< 18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
96
100
100
115
120
120
1800
2000
2000
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.4
1.4
1.4
ND
ND
ND
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.6
1.6
1.6
ND
ND
ND
13
13
13
17
17
17
30
35
35
1.7
1.7
1.7
2.0
2.0
2.0
80
100
100
Table 3 - Reference Values for Vitamins
  FolateTable 3 footnote 12 Vitamin B12 Pantothenic Acid Biotin CholineTable 3 footnote 15
Unit μg/day (DFE) μg/day mg/day μg/day mg/day
  EAR RDA/AI ULTable 3 footnote 13 EAR RDA/AI ULTable 3 footnote 14 AI ULTable 3 footnote 14 AI ULTable 3 footnote 14 AI UL
Infants

This table presents Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) in italics, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) are in shaded columns.

Table 3 footnotes

Table 3 footnote 12

As Dietary Folate Equivalents (DFE). See conversion factors for more details.

Return to table 3 footnote 12 referrer

Table 3 footnote 13

The UL for folate applies only to synthetic forms obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two.

Return to table 3 footnote 13 referrer

Table 3 footnote 14

Due to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin B12, pantothenic acid or biotin. This does not mean that there is no potential for adverse effects resulting from high intakes.

Return to table 3 footnote 14 referrer

Table 3 footnote 15

Although AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.

Return to table 3 footnote 15 referrer

Table 3 footnote b

In view of evidence linking the use of supplements containing folic acid before conception and during early pregnancy with reduced risk of neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant take a supplement containing 400μg of folic acid every day, in addition to the amount of folate found in a healthy diet.

Return to table 3 footnote b referrer

Table 3 footnote c

It is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 μg folic acid from supplements until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care. The critical time for formation of the neural tube is shortly after conception.

Return to table 3 footnote c referrer

Table 3 footnote d

Because 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound vitamin B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet the RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with vitamin B12 or a supplement containing vitamin B12.

Note: These are reference values for normal, apparently healthy individuals eating a typical mixed North American diet. An individual may have physiological, health, or lifestyle characteristics that may require tailoring of specific nutrient values.

Return to table 3 footnote d referrer

0-6 mo
7-12 mo
ND
ND
65*
80*
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.4*
0.5*
ND
ND
1.7*
1.8*
ND
ND
5*
6*
ND
ND
125*
150*
ND
ND
Children
1-3 y
4-8 y
120
160
150
200
300
400
0.7
1.0
0.9
1.2
ND
ND
2*
3*
ND
ND
8*
12*
ND
ND
200*
250*
1000
1000
Males
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
51-70 y
>70 y
250
330
320
320
320
320
300
400
400
400
400
400
600
800
1000
1000
1000
1000
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.8
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4 Table 3 footnote d
2.4 Table 3 footnote d
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
4*
5*
5*
5*
5*
5*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
20*
25*
30*
30*
30*
30*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
375*
550*
550*
550*
550*
550*
2000
3000
3500
3500
3500
3500
Females
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
51-70 y
>70 y
250
330
320
320
320
320
300
400Table 3 footnote b
400Table 3 footnote b
400Table 3 footnote b
400
400
600
800
1000
1000
1000
1000
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.8
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4Table 3 footnote d
2.4 Table 3 footnote d
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
4*
5*
5*
5*
5*
5*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
20*
25*
30*
30*
30*
30*
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
375*
400*
425*
425*
425*
425*
2000
3000
3500
3500
3500
3500
Pregnancy
< 18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
520
520
520
600Table 3 footnote c
600Table 3 footnote c
600Table 3 footnote c
800
1000
1000
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.6
2.6
2.6
ND
ND
ND
6*
6*
6*
ND
ND
ND
30*
30*
30*
ND
ND
ND
450*
450*
450*
3000
3500
3500
Lactation
< 18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
450
450
450
500
500
500
800
1000
1000
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.8
2.8
2.8
ND
ND
ND
7*
7*
7*
ND
ND
ND
35*
35*
35*
ND
ND
ND
550*
550*
550*
3000
3500
3500