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Food and Nutrition

Chemical Methods - Compendium of Methods for Chemical Analysis of Foods

The purpose of this Compendium is to provide an inventory of available Health Canada methods that can be used to test food for certain chemical or physical attributes.  These methods for the analysis of foods were developed in the Food and Nutrition Research Laboratories of the Food Directorate of the Health Products and Food Branch and in the Regional Laboratories of the Regions and Programs Branch, Health Canada. The methods are classified as: Official Methods, HPB Methods, and Laboratory Procedures. Each classification has a specific intended purpose.

Official Methods are those methods of analysis designated as such in the Food and Drug Regulations and are intended for the administration of the Act and Regulations.

Where no Official Methods are cited in the Food and Drug Regulations, HPB Methods were developed and used in support of Health Canada's regulatory compliance inspection programs prior to the creation of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) in 1997.  HPB Methods are fully validated through inter-laboratory studies and documented analytical methods.

Laboratory Procedures are those methods validated by at least one Health Canada laboratory, but not fully validated through inter-laboratory studies.  Like HPB Methods, Laboratory Procedures - Food Chemistry (LPFC) were issued prior to April 1, 1997, and would have been used in support of Health Canada regulatory compliance inspection programs or in data gathering surveys

Laboratory Procedures for Surveillance are designated as "LPS" methods and listed separately from the "LPFC" methods.  These "LPS" methods have also been validated by at least one Health Canada laboratory, are more modern and have been used in or are currently being used in Health Canada Chemical Surveillance Programs.  These Programs are intended for use in chemical exposure studies or for standard setting purposes.

For more information, please contact the Bureau of Chemical Safety.

See also: Compendium of Food Allergen Methodologies

Electronic copies of these methods are available upon request. Please select the appropriate link in the table below to send your request by e-mail. For all other questions about these methods, please contact the Food Directorate's Bureau of Chemical Safety.

Table of Contents - Compendium of Methods for Chemical Analysis of Foods
Identification Number Title Date Issued
Laboratory Procedures for Surveillance
LPS-001 Laboratory Procedure for the Determination of Benzene in Beverages June 5, 2006
LPS-002 Determination of Benzene in Soft Drinks and Other Beverages by Isotope Dilution Headspace Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry November 22, 2007
LPS-003 The Determination of Acrylamide in Foods by LC-ESI-MS-MS January 8, 2008
LPS-004 Determination of Bisphenol A in Liquid Infant Formula by Solid Phase Extraction with Acetic Anhydride Derivatization and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry August, 2008
LPS-005 Determination of Melamine in Various Milk-Containing Products November, 2008
Official Methods
FO-1 Determination of protein rating October 15, 1981
FO-2 Determination of volatile acidity of wine, cider and champagne cider October 15, 1981
FO-3 Determination of carbon dioxide in baking powder October 15, 1981
FO-4 Determination of arsenic in food colours October 15, 1981
FO-5 Determination of lead in food colours October 15, 1981
FO-6 Determination of higher aromatic hydrocarbons or tarry materials in carbon black and charcoal October 15, 1981
FO-7 Determination of dye content of synthetic food colours March 15, 1984
FO-8 Determination of water insoluble matter in synthetic food colours March 15, 1984
FO-9 Determination of combined ether extracts in synthetic food colours March 15, 1984
FO-10 Determination of subsidiary dyes in synthetic food colours March 15, 1984
FO-11 Determination of intermediates in synthetic food colours March 15, 1984
FO-12 Determination of volatile matter in Citrus Red No. 2 March 15, 1984
FO-13 Determination of sulphated ash in Citrus Red No. 2 March 15, 1984
FO-14 Determination of water soluble matter in Citrus Red No. 2 March 15, 1984
FO-15 Determination of carbon tetrachloride insoluble matter in Citrus Red No. 2 March 15, 1984
FO-16 Determination of tocopherol in milk fat or butter fat October 15, 1981
FO-17 Extraction of soluble substances from vanilla beans September 15, 1989
FO-18 Determination of drained tomato solids October 15, 1981
FO-19 Determination of tomato solids October 15, 1981
FO-20 Determination of drained solids of beans with pork or beans and pork and beans or vegetarian beans October 15, 1981
FO-21 Determination of amino acids in grapefruit juice and orange juice October 15, 1981
FO-22 Determination of potassium in grapefruit juice and orange juice October 15, 1981
FO-23 Determination of absorbance value for total polyphenolics in grapefruit juice and orange juice October 15, 1981
FO-24 Determination of Brix reading for grapefruit juice and orange juice October 15, 1981
FO-25 Determination of acid in grapefruit juice or orange juice October 15, 1981
FO-26 Determination of soluble solids in lemon juice, lime juice or lime fruit juice October 15, 1981
FO-27 Determination of acid in lemon juice, lime juice or lime fruit juice October 15, 1981
FO-28 Determination of starch in gluten flour October 15, 1981
FO-29 Determination of moisture in grain October 15, 1981
FO-30 Determination of ash in grain October 15, 1981
FO-31 Determination of degree of fineness of grain October 15, 1981
FO-32 Determination of fillers, binders and dextrose equivalent October 15, 1981
FO-33 Determination of fat in meat and simulated meat products October 15, 1981
FO-34 Determination of ash in edible bone meal or edible bone flour October 15, 1981
FO-35 Determination of ash-free solids in gelatin October 15, 1981
FO-36 Determination of wiener content of meat specialties October 15, 1981
FO-37 Determination of water-soluble extractive in tea October 15, 1981
FO-38 Determination of salt in smoked fish March 15, 1985
FO-39 Determination of meat in boneless poultry October 15, 1981
FO-40 Determination of vinyl chloride in food October 15, 1981
FO-41 Determination of acrylonitrile in food February 16, 1982
FO-42 Determination of bioavailability of iron December 15, 1982
HPB Methods
HPB-FC-1 Determination of patulin by TLC July 1981
HPB-FC-2 Determination of docosenoic acid in fats and oil by GLC November 1981
HPB-FC-3 The determination of brominated vegetable oils in citrus-flavoured or spruce-flavoured beverages November 1981
HPB-FC-4 Determination of fluoride in food by micro-diffusion using a fluoride-specific electrode December 1981
HPB-FC-5 Determination of arsenic and selenium in foods (formerly LPFC-115) May 1982
HPB-FC-6 Determination of N-nitrosodimethylamine in beer at the lower parts per billion level by a GLC-thermal energy analyzer technique February 1982
HPB-FC-7 High performance liquid chromatographic determination of seven antioxidants in oil and lard (formerly LPFC-104) April 1982
HPB-FC-8 Determination of N-nitrosodimethylamine in non-fat dry milk January 1984
HPB-FC-9 Determination of tin in canned foods (formerly LPFC-112) June 1984
HPB-FC-10 Determination of ethyl carbamate in table wine, sherry, liquors and liqueurs April 1986
HPB-FC-11 Liquid chromatographic determination of domoic acid in mussels using the AOAC paralytic shellfish poison extraction procedure (formerly LPFC-151) March 1989
HPB-FC-12 Rapid gravimetric method for analysis of water-soluble and insoluble dietary fibre (formerly LPFC-142) January 1992
HPB-FC-13 Liquid chromatographic determination of nine antioxidants in butter oil October 1992
HPB-FC-14 High pressure liquid chromatographic determination of Aflatoxins in peanut butter and other commodities (formerly LPFC-124) June 1993
Laboratory Procedures
LPFC-100 Determination of monosodium glutamate in foods by GLC as trimethylsilyl derivative September 1978
LPFC-101 Direct analysis of carbofuran and two non-conjugated metabolites in foods by high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV absorption detection April 1978
LPFC-102 Determination of saccharin, sodium benzoate and caffeine in carbonated beverages by HPLC April 1980
LPFC-103 Determination of parabenz in beverages by GLC April 1979
LPFC-105 Determination of sorbic acid in fish November 1979
LPFC-106 Determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acids (EDTA) in fish November 1979
LPFC-107 Determination of ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides in bread November 1979
LPFC-108 Determination of barban in wheat products April 1980
LPFC-109 Comparison of liquid and gas chromatography for the determination of bromoxynil octanoate and benzoylprop-ethyl in wheat products May 1980
LPFC-110 Determination of lead and cadmium in foods by atomic absorption spectrophotometry August 1980
LPFC-111 Determination of ethoxyquin in spices October 1980
LPFC-114 Rapid screening determination of lead in canned milk and infant formulas using graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry November 1980
LPFC-116 Rapid determination of lead and cadmium in foods using graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry April 1981
LPFC-117 Determination of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin, DON) in wheat and other grains by gas chromatography with electron capture and mass spectrometric detection January 1982
LPFC-118 Determination of metribuzin and its metabolites March 1982
LPFC-119 Determination of triforine in fruit March 1982
LPFC-120 Determination of Ergot alkaloids in wheat flour, rye flour and triticale flour July 1982
LPFC-121 A rapid method for the simultaneous analysis of diquat and paraquat in potatoes December 1982
LPFC-122 Determination of total lipids in foods April 1983
LPFC-123 Determination of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin, DON) in wheat flour by gas chromatography with electron capture and mass spectrometric detection May 1983
LPFC-125 A rapid method for the determination of sodium and potassium June 1983
LPFC-126 Colorimetric determination of nitrate and nitrite in foods December 1983
LPFC-127 Screening test for the detection of sulphur dioxide in food products April 1984
LPFC-128 Determination of sucrose diacetate hexaisobutyrate (SAIB) in soft drinks April 1984
LPFC-129 Determination of egg-yolk solids in alimentary paste (formerly FA-1) October 1984 Amended June 1985
LPFC-130 Modified babcock method for fat in ground meat using paley bottles (formerly FA-33) October 1984
LPFC-131 Method for moisture in meat products (formerly FA-35) October 1984
LPFC-132 Determination of the percentage nuts in mixed nuts or a mixture of nuts (formerly FA-80, may be modified)
LPFC-133 Determination of methyl bromide in foods October 1984
LPFC-134 Determination of ethylene dibromide and other fumigants in foods November 1984
LPFC-135 Enzymatic determination of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) November 1984
LPFC-136 Determination of ethylene chlorohydrin in spices March 1985
LPFC-137 Sample preparation by dry ashing for the determination of various elements by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy April 1985
LPFC-138 Determination of nivalenol and deoxunivalenol (vomitoxin, DON) in cereals by gas chromatography with electron capture detection June 1985 Amended November 1989
LPFC-139 High performance liquid chromatographic determination of seven antioxidants in dry foods, mayonnaise and salad dressings December 1985
LPFC-140 Graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of lead and cadmium in foods after nitric-perchloric acid digestion and coprecipitation with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate December 1985
LPFC-141 Graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of arsenic in foods after wet-dry ash and coprecipitation with ammonium pyrrolidine dithocarbamate February 1986 Amended January 1987
LPFC-143 Determination of diethylene glycol in wines by capillary gas chromatography June 1986
LPFC-144 Determination of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin, DON), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol in cereals by gas chromatography with electron capture detection August 1986
LPFC-145 Gas chromatographic determination of polysaccharide gums in foods after hydrolysis and derivatization December 1986
LPFC-146 HPLC analysis of diquat and paraquat in potatoes January 1987
LPFC-147 An improved method for the determination of 1,1- dimethylhydrazine in apple and cherry products August 1987
LPFC-148 The determination of naptalam and its metabolite in foods as 1-naphthylamine using HPLC and oxidative electrochemical detection October 1987
LPFC-149 Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in foods by HPLC with fluorescence detection August 1987
LPFC-150 Determination of zearalenone and a- and b-zearalenols in milk by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection December 1987
LPFC-152 Determination of fluazifop-butyl and fluazifop acid in soybeans and soybean oil using liquid chromatography with oxidative electrochemical detection July 1988
LPFC-153 Determination of alachlor and its 2,6-diethylaniline-containing metabolites in corn, soybeans and potatoes as heptafluorobutyryl-2,6-diethylaniline September 1988
LPFC-154 Determination of ergot alkaloids in wheat, rye and triticale flours, breads and bran December 1988
LPFC-155 Determination of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin, DON), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, 15-monacetoxyscirpenol and diacetoxyscirpenol in wheat and soybean by gas chromatography with electron capture detection July 1989
LPFC-156 Extraction and cleanup procedure for polychlorinated dioxins and furans in foods November 1989
LPFC-157 Determination of ochratoxin A in meat by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection November 1989 Amended December 1989
LPFC-158 Determination of sulfite in foods by liquid chromatography with amperometric detection February 1990
LPFC-159 Determination of ethylenethourea (ETU) in fruit juices May 1991
LPFC-160 Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometric determination of selenium in foods December 1990 Amended March 1991
LPFC-161 Determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn and corn meal by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection May 1991 Amended June 1991
LPFC-162 Sequential method for rapid determination of total dietary fibre June 1992
LPFC-163 Determination of methyl carbamate and ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages and other fermented foods May 1993
LPFC-164 Application of solid-phase microextraction to the headspace gas chromatographic analysis of halogenated volatiles in selected foods October 1993 Amended December 1993
LPFC-165 Graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of total aluminum, copper, manganese, molybdenum and tin in infant formulas and evaporated milks November 1994
LPFC-166 On-line steam distillation - purge and trap analysis of halogenated non-volatile contaminants in foods March 1995
LPFC-167 Liquid chromatographic determination of okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 in shellfish after derivatization with 9-chloromethylanthracene June 1995
LPFC-200 The fluorometric determination of vitamin A in dairy products December 1986