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Food and Nutrition

Articles on Canadians' Food and Nutrient Intakes - Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, Nutrition (2004)

The first three articles found on this page summarize the intake of energy and nutrients by Canadians using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2-Nutrition. An assessment of the data was done against the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and results are presented by life stage at the national level.

Also using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2-Nutrition, the fourth article summarizes the eating habits and nutrient intake of Aboriginal people, aged 19-50 years old, living off-reserve in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario. When possible, nutrient intakes were assessed against the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).

Key Findings for Children Aged 1-8 Years:

  • 1 in 5 Canadian children have energy intakes that exceed their energy needs.
  • A notable proportion of the diets of 1-3 year-old children contain total fat in quantities below the recommended range.
  • The diets of children provide adequate amounts of most vitamins and minerals, with the exception of vitamin D (see Box 1 in the full article) and calcium (4 - 8 years only).
  • For nutrients with an Adequate Intake (AI), there is concern that Canadian children may not be meeting their needs for potassium and fibre - although the interpretation of the adequacy of nutrients with an AI is limited.
  • Canadian children's sodium intakes are associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects.

Read the full article on Children

Key Findings for Adolescents Aged 9 - 18 Years:

  • 3 in 10 adolescents have energy intakes that exceed their energy needs.
  • The saturated fat intakes of Canadian adolescents could be further decreased.
  • Many adolescents have inadequate intakes of magnesium, vitamin A, vitamin D (see Box 1 in the full article), calcium and phosphorous.
  • For nutrients with an Adequate Intake (AI), there is concern that Canadian adolescents may not be meeting their needs for potassium and fibre - although the interpretation of the adequacy of nutrients with an AI is limited.
  • Canadian adolescents' sodium intakes are associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects.

Read the full article on Adolescents

Key Findings for Adults Aged 19 Years and Older:

  • 5 in 10 women and 7 in 10 men have energy intakes that exceed their energy needs.
  • 25% of males and 23% of females, 19 years and older, have fat intakes above the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range.
  • 32% of males and 21% of females, 19 years and older, have carbohydrate intakes below the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range.
  • Many adults have inadequate intakes of magnesium, calcium, vitamin A and vitamin D (see Box 1 in the full article).
  • For nutrients with an Adequate Intake (AI), there is concern that Canadian adults may not be meeting their needs for potassium and fibre - although the interpretation of the adequacy of nutrients with an AI is limited.
  • Canadian adults' sodium intakes are associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects.

Read the full article on Adults

Key Findings for Off-Reserve Aboriginal people Aged 19-50 Years (Ontario and the Western Provinces):

  • 75% of men and women have protein, fat, and carbohydrate intakes within the recommended range.
  • Eating habits do not fully meet Canadas Food Guide to Healthy Eating (1992) recommendations for Vegetables and Fruit, and Milk Products (Aboriginal men and women), and Grain Products (Aboriginal women).
  • There is a high rate of overweight (29%) and obesity (38%) among this population.
  • Many adults have inadequate intakes of magnesium, calcium, vitamin A and vitamin D (see Box 1 in the full article).
  • There is some concern that men and women may not be meeting their needs for potassium, fiber and linoleic acid, though the interpretation of adequacy for nutrients with an Adequate Intake is limited.
  • More than 65% of men and women have sodium intakes greater than the UL (upper limit).
  • Health Canada continues to recommend using Eating Well with Canadas Food Guide and Eating Well with Canadas Food Guide - First Nations, Inuit and Mtis to assist people in making healthy food choices. Healthy food choices can reduce the risk of chronic diseases and improve health overall.

Read the full article on Aboriginal people

Provincial Results

Some of the hyperlinks provided are to sites of organizations or other entities that are not subject to the Next link will take you to another Web site Official Languages Act. The material found there is therefore in the language(s) used by the sites in question.

Information on nutrient intakes by province can be found on Canadas Nutrition and Health Atlas.

Read articles or reports (where available) on provincial level food and nutrient intakes:

  • Next link will take you to another Web site Qubec - (Report in French only)

Please Note: The CCHS 2.2 does not include data from the Northwest Territories, Yukon Territory or Nunavut. However, the target population covered by the survey represents approximately 98% of the population of the 10 provinces and is thus considered a national survey.

For general questions/comments about these articles Contact the Office of Nutrition Policy and Promotion.

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